I provide editing services for everything from books to journal and magazine articles, short and long, and I understand the requirements for publishing for academia, for the general public, and for the public, third and private sectors.

I provide a range of editing services, including "standard" copy editing, English as a Foreign Language copy editing, and proofreading. More details about what each of these comprises are given below.

I also provide a premium fast service if you require work to be edited quickly.

Copy editing

This consists of preparing a text for publication. The precise tasks vary according to the publisher's/author's needs, but the aim is to improve the style and accuracy of the text. Tasks include:

It can also include, depending on the client's requirements:

I also notify the client of any issues arising during the copy editing, such as unclear passages of text, factual errors, possible legal issues, etc. and discuss any other issues as they arise.

I typically recommend a double reading of the copy, in which I read the text through the first time to make most of the substantial edits required, and a second time to address any final errors or problems.

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) copy editing

This comprises the same tasks as copy editing, but also recognises that the author's first language is not English, and so places particular emphasis on the type of language used, and on adapting the text as necessary to make it appear more as a native English speaker would write.

I speak Spanish and Portuguese to a high level, and have a working knowledge of German, Dutch and French, which help me to understand the author's intended meaning when editing EFL text.


In contrast to copy editing, proofreading is the checking of a document proof in its final format, ready for publication. The purpose is a final check of the document before its publication, to achieve the following:

Proofreading can be done by comparing the final proofs with the original text for consistency, or "blind", simply by reading the proofs as they stand. Edits are marked on paper printouts using standard proofreading symbols. Given that proofs are close to the final publication stage, edits will be kept as small as possible, as they could involve substantial costs to change. Any larger issues are raised with the client as they arise.